Follow my research publications on ResearchGate.net

Publications

In peer-reviewed journals and edited volumes

(* Fischerπs student 1st author)

72. Lee, H; Muirhead, J.D.; Fischer, T.P.; Ebinger, C.J.; Kattenhorn, S.A.; Sharp, Z.D.; Kianji, G. (2015) Massive and prolonged deep carbon emissions associated with continental rifting. Nature Geosci. AOP doi:10.1038/ngeo2622

71. Sano, Y., Kagoshima, T., Takahata, N., Nishio, Y., Roulleau, E, Pinti, D.L., Fischer, T.P. (2015) Ten years helium anomaly prior to the 2014 Mt Ontake eruption. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13069 (2015) doi:10.1038/srep13069

70. Lee, H.*, Sharp, Z.D., Fischer, T.P. (2015) Kinetic nitrogen isotope fractionation between air and dissolved N2 in water: Implications for hydrothermal systems Geochem. J. 49 (5) 571-573

69. van Hinsberg, V., Vigouroux, N., Palmer, S., Berlo, K., Mauri, G., Williams-Jones, A.E., McKenzie, J., Williams-Jones, G., Fischer, T.P. (2015 in press) Element flux to the environment of the passively degassing crater lake-hosting Kawah Ijen volcano, Indonesia, and implications for estimates of the global volcanic flux. Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes

68. Fischer, T.P. and Chiodini, G. (2015) Volcanic, Magmatic and Hydrothermal Gas Discharges. Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, 2nd Edition p. 779- 797 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00045-6

67. Fischer T.P., Ramirez C., Mora-Amador R, Hilton D.R., Barnes J. D., Sharp Z.D., Le Brun M., de Moor J.M., Barry P.H., Füri E., Shaw A.M. (2015). Temporal variations in fumarole gas chemistry at Poás volcano, Costa Rica. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 294, 56-70

66. Kagoshima, T., Sano, Y., Takahata, N., Maruoka, T., Fischer, T.P., Hattori, K. (2015). Sulfur geodynamic cycle. Scientific Reports 5 : 8330 | DOI: 10.1038/srep08330

65. Lu, Z.-T, Schlosser, P., Smethie Jr.,W.M., Sturchio, N.C., Fischer, T.P., Kennedy, B.M., Purtschert, R., Severinghaus, J.P., Solomon, D.K., Tanhua, T, Yokochi, R. (2014). Tracer Applications of Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Geosciences. Earth Science Reviews, 138, 196-214; doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.09.002

64. Oppenheimer C, Fischer TP, Scaillet B (2014) Volcanic degassing: processes and impact. Treatise on Geochemistry (second edition), Volume 4, the crust p.111 – 179 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.00304-1.

63. Zelenski, ME, Fischer, TP, de Moor, JM, Marty, B, Zimmermann, L, Ayalew, D, Nekrasov, AN, Karandashev, VK (2013) Trace elements in the gas emissions from the Erta Ale volcano, Afar, Ethiopia Chem. Geol. 357, 95-116

62. de Moor JM*, Fischer TP, Sharp, ZD, King, PL, Wilke, M, Botcharnikov, RE, Cottrell, E, Zelenski, M, Marty, B, Klimm, K, Rivard, C, Ayalew, D, Ramirez C, and Kelley, KA. Erta (2013) Sulfur degassing at Erta Ale (Ethiopia) and Masaya (Nicaragua) volcanoes: Implications for the degassing processes and oxygen fugacities of basaltic systems, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20255

61. de Moor JM*, Fischer TP, King, P.E; Bocharnikov, R, Hervig, R, Hilton, DR, Barry, P., Mangasini F, Ramirez C (2013) Volatile-rich silicate melts from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano 1 (Tanzania): Implications for carbonatite genesis and eruptive behavior. Earth and Planet. Sci. Letters, 361, 379-390

60. Halldorsson, SA, Hilton, DR, Troll, VR, Fischer, TP (2013) The He-C-N systematics of the west Sunda arc system. Chemical Geology, 339

59. de Moor JM*, Fischer TP, Sharp ZD, Mangasini F, Ramirez C, Hilton DR, Berry P (2013) Cold mantle gases from Rungwe Volcanic Province, southern Tanzania. Chem. Geol. 339, 30-42.

58. Barry PH, Hilton DR, Fischer TP, de Moor JM, Mangasini F, Ramirez C (2013) Helium and carbon isotope systematics of geothermal gases and fluids from Rungwe Volcanic Province, southern Tanzania. Chem. Geol. 339, 141-156

57. Sano, Y and Fischer, TP (2013). The analysis and interpretation of noble gases in modern hydrothermal systems. In: Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers (Peter Burnard, editor). Series: Advances in Isotope Geochemisrty (J. Hoefs, series editor). ISBN 978-3-642-28835-7 Springer Verlag, Heidelberg

56. Hilton, D.R., Halldorsson, S.A., Barry, P.H., Fischer, T.P., de Moor, J.M., Mangasini, F., Ramirez, C.J. and Scarsi, P. (2011) Helium isotopes at Rungwe volcanic province, Tanzania and the origin of East African plateaux. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L21304, doi:10.1029/2011GL049589

55. Joseph, E.P., Fournier, N., Lindsay, J.M., Fischer, T.P. (2011) Gas and water geochemistry of geothermal systems in Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 206, 1-4

54. Lin, I-I, Chuanmin Hu,Yuan-Hui Li, Tung-Yuan Ho, Fischer, T.P., Chi-Wei Huang, Jingfeng Wu, D. Allen Chu, George T. F. Wong, Dong-San Ko, Jen-Ping Chen (2011) Fertilisation Potential of Volcanic Dust in the Low Nutrient Low Chlorophyll Western North Pacific Subtropical Gyre – Satellite Evidence and Laboratory Study Global Biogeochem. Cycles 25, doi:10.1029/2009GB003758

53. Hilton, D.R., Ramirez, C., Mora Amador, R. A., Fischer, T.P., Füri, E., Barry, P.H. and Shaw, A.M. (2010) Monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in fumarole helium and carbon dioxide characteristics at Poás and Turrialba volcanoes, Costa Rica (2001-2009) Geochemical J. 44(5), 431-440 44(5), 431-44044, p. 431-440

52. de Moor, J. M.*, Fischer, T.P., Sharp, Z.D., Hauri, Hilton, D.R., Atudorei, V. (2010) Sulfur isotope fractionation during the May 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands: Implications for sulfur sources and plume processes. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 74, pp 5382-5397

51. Shock, E.L., Holland, M., Meyer-Dombart, D., Amend, J.P., Osburn, G.R., Fischer, T.P. (2010) Quantifying Inorganic Sources of geochemical energy in hydrothermal ecosystems, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.08.036

50. Füri, E., Hilton, D.R., Halldorsson, S.A., Barry, P.H., Hahm, D., Fischer, T.P. Grönvold, K. (2010) Apparent decoupling of the He and Ne isotope systematics of the Icelandic mantle: The role of He depletion, melt mixing, degassing fractionation and air interaction, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 74, 3307-3332

49. Mitchell, E.C.*, Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Hauri, E., Shaw, A.M., de Moor, J.M., Sharp, Z.D., Kazahaya, K. (2010) Nitrogen sources and recycling at subduction zones: Insights from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. G-cubed, 11, Q02X11, doi:10.1029/2009GC0027832

48. Sharp, Z.D., Barnes, J.D., Fischer, T.P., Halick, M. (2010) An experimental determination of chlorine isotope fractionation in acid systems and applications to volcanic fumaroles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Volume 74, 264-273

47. Barnes, J.D, Sharp, Z.D., Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., and Carr, M.J. (2009) Variations in chlorine stable isotopes along the Central American volcanic front and backarc. G-cubed 10, 11, doi:10.1029/2009GC002587, 2009

46. Ray, M.C., Hilton, D.R., Munoz, J. Fischer, T.P., Shaw, A.M. (2009) Assessing the effects of degassing and crustal contamination on the helium and carbon geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids: insights from the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. Chem. Geol. 266, 38-49

45. Crossey, L.C., Karlsstrom, K.E., Springer, A., Newell, D., Hilton D.R., Fischer, T.P. (2009) Degassing of mantle-derived CO2and 3He from springs in the southern Colorado Plateau region-flux rates, neotectonic connections, and implications for understanding groundwater systems GSA Bulletin, 121, 1034-1053

44. Fischer, T.P., Burnard, P., Marty, B., Hilton, D.R., Furi, E., Palhol, F., Sharp, Z.D., Mangasini, F. (2009) Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites Nature, 459, 77-80 doi:10.1038/nature07977

43. Mazot, A., Bernard, A., Fischer, T.P.,  Inguaggiato, S., I.S., Sutawidjaja (2008) Chemical evolution of thermal waters and changes in the hydrothermal system after the November 2002 eruption in the Papandayan volcano (West Java, Indonesia). J. Volcanolo. Geotherm. Res. 178, 276-286

42. Shaw, A.M., Hauri, E., Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Kelly, K.H. (2008) Hydrogen isotopes in Mariana arc melt inclusions: implications for subduction dehydration and the deep-Earth water cycle. Earth and Planet. Sci. Let.  275, 138-145

41. Witt, M., Fischer, T.P., Pyle, M.D., Yang, T.F., Zellmer, G.F. (2008) Fumarole compositions and mercury emissions from the Tatun Volcanic Field, Taiwan: Results from real time measurements and direct sampling techniques. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 178, 636 ≠643.

40. Barnes, J. D., Sharp, Z.D., Fischer, T.P. (2008) Chlorine isotope variations across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Geology 36, 883≠886

39. Newell, D. L., Jessup, M.J., Colte, J.M., Hilton, D.R., Sharp, Z.D., Fischer, T.P. (2008) Aqueous and isotope geochemistry of mineral springs along the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau - Implications for fluid sources and regional degassing of CO2. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 9, Q08014, doi:10.1029/2008GC002021

38. Fischer, T.P. (2008) Volatile fluxes (H2O, CO2, N2, HCl, HF) from arc volcanoes. Geochemical J., 42, 21-38.

37. Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P. McGonigle, A., de Moor, J.M. (2007) Variable SO2 emission rates for Anatahan volcano, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Implications for deriving arc-wide volatile fluxes from erupting volcanoes Geophysical Res. Lett. 34 , doi:10.1029/2007GL030405.

36. de Leeuw, G.A.M., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., Walker,J.A. (2007) The He-CO2 isotope and relative abundance characteristics of geothermal fluids in El Salvador and Honduras: new constraints on volatile mass balance of the Central American Volcanic Arc, Earth and Planet. Sci. Let. 158, 132-146

35. Sharp, Z.D., Barnes, J.D., Brearley, A., Fischer, T.P., and Chaussidon, M.K., V.S., (2007) Chlorine isotope homogeneity of the mantle, crust and carbonaceous chondrites. Nature. 446, 1062-1065.

34. Fischer, T.P., Shaw, A.M., Hilton, D.R. (2007) Gas geochemistry of volcanic and hydrothermal fluids of Central America.  IN: Central America: geology, Resources and Hazards" edited by J. Bundschuh and G. Alvarado, Balkema, the Netherlands

33. Elkins L.*, Fischer T. P., Hilton D. R., Sharp Z. D., McKnight S., and Walker J. A. (2006) Tracing nitrogen in volcanic and geothermal volatiles from the Nicaraguan volcanic front. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 70, 5215-5235.

32. Shaw, A.M., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., Walker, J.A. and de Leeuw, G.A.M. (2006) Helium isotope variations in mineral separates from Costa Rica and Nicaragua: Assessing crustal contributions, time-scale variations and diffusion-related mechanisms. Chem. Geol., 230: 124-139.

31. Pfeffer, M.A.*,  Rietmeijer, F.J.M., Brearley, A.,  Fischer, T.P. (2006) Electron Microbeam Analyses of Aerosols From the Plume of Po·s Volcano, Costa Rica and Comparison with Equilibrium Plume Chemistry Modelling. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 152, 174-188

30. Crossey, L.J., Fischer, T.P., Patchett, P.J., Karlstrom, K.E., Hilton, D.R., Newell, D.L., Huntoon, P., Reynolds, A.C. (2006) Dissected hydrologic system at Grand Canyon: interaction between upper world and lower world waters in modern springs and travertine.  Geology, 34, 25-28, doi: 10.1130/G22057.1

29. Newell, D.L., Crossey, L.J., Karlstrom, K.E., Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., (2005) Continental-scale links between the mantle and groundwater systems of the Western US: evidence from travertine springs and regional He isotope data. GSA Today, 15, no. 12, 4-10, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2005)015<4:cSlBtM>2.0.cO;2

28. de Moor, J. M. *, Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Hauri, E., Jaffe, L. A., Camacho, J.T. (2005) Degassing at Anatahan volcano during the May 2003 eruption: Implications from petrology, ash leachates, and SO2 emissions. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research 146, 117-138

27. Wade, J.A., Plank, T., Stern, R.J., Tollstrup, D., Gill, J., OπLeary, J., Moore, R.B., Trusdell, F., Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R. (2005) The May 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands: geochemical evolution of a silicic island arc volcano. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research 146, 139 - 170

26. Fischer, T.P., Takahata, N., Sano, Y., Sumino, H., Hilton, D.R. (2005) Nitrogen isotopes of the mantle: insights from mineral separates (Editorsπ choice as journal highlight). Geophys Res. Lett. 32, L11305, doi10.1029/2005GRL022792

25. McGonigle, A., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., Oppenheimer, C. (2005) Plume velocity determination for volcanic SO2 flux measurements. Geophys Res. Lett. 32, L11302, doi10.1029/2005GRL022470

24. Clor, L. E.*, Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Sharp, Z.D., and Hartono, U. (2005), Volatile and N isotope chemistry of the Molucca Sea collision zone: Tracing source components along the Sangihe Arc, Indonesia, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, Q03J14 doi:10.1029/2004GC000825.

23. Fischer, T.P. and Marty, B. (2005) Volatiles in the sub-arc mantle: insights from volcanic and hydrothermal gas emissions. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research, State of the Arc (SOTA) special issue140, 205-216

22. RodrÌguez, L.A., Watson, I.M., Rose, W.I., Branan, Y.K., Bluth, G.J.S., Chigna, G., MatÌas, O., Escobar, D., Carn, S.A. and Fischer, T.P. (2004) SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 1999-2002, J.  Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 138 (3-4), pp. 345-364.

21. Zimmer, M. M. *, Fischer, T. P., Hilton, D. R., Alvarado, G. E. , Sharp, Z. D. and Walker , J. A. (2004), Nitrogen systematics and gas fluxes of subduction zones: Insights from Costa Rica arc volatiles, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q05J11, doi:10.1029/2003GC000651.

20. Jaffe, L. A., Hilton, D. R., Fischer, T. P. and Hartono, U.  (2004), Tracing magma sources in an arc-arc collision zone: Helium and carbon isotope and relative abundance systematics of the Sangihe Arc, Indonesia, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst, 5,Q04J10, doi:10.1029/2003GC000660.

19. Shaw, A.M., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., Walker, J.A., Alvarado, G. (2003) Contrasting volatile systematics of Nicaragua and Costa Rica: insights to C cycling through subduction zones using He-C relationships.  Earth Planet. Science. Letters, 214, 499-513.

18. Fischer, T.P., Roggensack, K., Kyle, P. (2002) Open and almost shut case for explosive eruptions: vent processes determined by SO2 emission rates at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Geology, 30, 1059-1062

17. Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Zimmer, M.M., Shaw, A.M., Sharp. Z.D., Walker, J.A. (2002) Subduction and Recycling of Nitrogen along the Central American Margin. Science 297, 1154-1157

16. Hilton D. R., Fischer T. P., and Marty B. (2002) Noble gases in subduction zones and volatile recycling. In MSA Special Volume: Noble Gases. Mineralogical Society of America. Vol 47 319-370.

15. Taran, Y.A., Fischer, T.P., Cienfuegos, E. Morales, P. (2002) Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from an intraplate ocean island: Everman volcano on Socorro Island, Mexico, Chemical Geology, 188, 51-63

14. Giggenbach W. F., Tedesco D., Sulisiyo Y., Caprai A., Cioni R., Favara R., Fischer T. P., Hirabayashi J., Korzhinsky M., Martini M., Menyailov I., and Shinohara H. (2001) Evaluation of results from Forth and Fifth IAVCEI Field Workshop on Volcanic Gases, Vulcano Island, Italy and Java, Indonesia. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research 108, 283-302

13. Sano Y., Takahata N., Nishio, Y., Fischer T.P., Williams, S.N. (2001). Volcanic flux of nitrogen from the earth.  Chemical Geology. 171, 263-271

12. Lewicki, J., Fischer, T.P., Williams, S.N. (2000). Variations in the chemical and isotopic composition of fumarole gases and spring discharges from Cumbal volcano, ColombiaBulletin of Volcanology, 62, 347-361.

11. Delmelle, P., Bernard, A., Kusakabe, M., Fischer, T.P., Takano, B. (2000).  The crater lake system of Kawah Ijen volcano, Indonesia: insights from chemical and isotopic compositions obtained between 1990 and 1996 J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 97, 31-53

10. Fischer T. P., Giggenbach, W.F., Sano Y., Williams, S.N. (1998) Fluxes and sources of volatiles discharged from Kudryavy, a subduction zone volcano, Kurile Islands.  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 160, 81-96

9. Taran, Y., Fischer, T.P., Porovsky, B., Sano, Y., Armienta, M.A., Macias, J.L. (1998).  Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El ChichÛn volcano, Chiapas, Mexico . Bulletin of Volcanology, 59, 436-449

8. Fischer T. P., Shuttleworth S., and O'Day P. A. (1998) Determination of trace and platinum-group elements in high ionic-strength volcanic fluids by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 362, 457-464.

7. Delmelle, P., Kusakabe, M., Bernard, A., Fischer, T.P., de Brouwer, S., del Mundo, E (1998). Geochemical and isotopic evidence for sea water contamination of the hydrothermal system of Taal volcano, Luzon, the Philippines. Bulletin of Volcanology 59, 562-576

6. Goff, F., Janik, C. J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J. A., Siebe, C., Love, S. P., Williams, S. N., Fischer, T. P. and Johnson, L., (1998). Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at PopocatÈpetl Volcano, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, 695-710

5. Fischer, T.P., Sturchio, N.C., Stix, J., Counce, D., Arehart, G.B., and Williams, S.N. (1997). The chemical and isotopic composition of fumarole gases and spring discharges at Galeras volcano, Colombia. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research 77, 229-253.

4. Zapata G., J.A., Calvache V., M.L., CortÈs J., G.P., Fischer, T.P., Garzon V., G., GÛmez M., D., Narv·ez M., L. OrdÛÒez V., M. Ortega E., A., Stix, J. Torres C., R., and Williams, S.N. (1997). SO2 fluxes from Galeras Volcano, Colombia, 1989-1995: Progressive degassing and conduit obstruction of a Decade Volcano. J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research77, 195-208.

3. Fischer T. P., Arehart G. B., Sturchio N. C., and Williams S. N. (1996). The relationship between fumarole gas composition and eruptive activity at Galeras Volcano, Colombia. Geology 24, 531-534

2. Fischer, T.P., Morrissey, M.M., Calvache V., M.L., Gomez M., D., Torres C., R., Stix, J., Williams, S.N.(1994).  Correlations between SO2 flux and Long Period Seismicity at Galeras Volcano.  Nature 368, p135-137

1. Stix, J.,  Calvache V., M.L., Cortez, G.P., Fischer, T.P., Gomez, D., OrdoÒez, M., Torres, R., and Williams, S.N.(1993).  A model of degassing at Galeras Volcano Colombia 1988-1993, Geology 21, 963-967.

Reports

Werner, C. Janik, C.J., Goff, F., Counce, D., Johnson, L., Siebe, C., Delgado, H., Williams, S.N., and Fischer, T.P. (1997). Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at PopocatÈpetl Volcano, Mexico.  Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-13289, June 1997.

Other publications

Fischer, T.P. (2008) Newsletter No. 20: IAVCEI Commission on the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases (CCVG).

Fischer, T.P. (2006) Newsletter No. 19: IAVCEI Commission on the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases (CCVG).

Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., White, R.A. (2005) MARGINS Event Response: Anatahan Volcano. MARGINS Newsletter, 14, 12-13.

Hilton, D.R., Pallister, J.S., Fischer, T.P., Weins, D. A., Truesdell, F.A., Chong, R.C., Camacho, J.T. (2004) The 2003 Eruption of Anatahan. MARGINS Newsletter, 12, 1-4.

Fischer, T.P. (2004) Book Review: Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems EOS, Trans. Geophys. Union, 85 (42), 420.

Fischer, T.P. (2004) Newsletter No 18: IAVCEI Commission on the Chemistry of Volcanic Gases (CCVG).

Wardell, L., Delmelle, P., Fischer, T.P., Lewicki, J., Malavassi, E., Stix, J., Strauch, W. (2004) Meeting report Eighth Volcanic Gas Workshop, IAVCEI Newsletter, 2004, no. 1, 6

Weins, D., Shore, P.J., Sauter, A., Hilton, D.R., Fischer, T.P., Camacho, J.T. (2004) Observing the historic eruption of Northern Marianas Islands Volcano. EOS v. 85. no. 1, 2, 10.1029/2004EO010003

Leeman, W., Davidson, J., Fischer, T.P., Grunder, A., Reagan, M., Streck, M. (2003) Current perspectives on energy and mass fluxes in volcanic arcs.  EOS v. 84, no. 48, 531.

Wardell, L., Delmelle, P., Fischer, T.P., Lewicki, J., Malavassi, E., Stix, J., Strauch, W. (2003) Volcanic gas workshop features state of the art measurement techniques, EOS, vol 84, no. 47, 519

Fischer, T.P. (2003) Volcanology: annual review.  Geotimes (Highlights), vol 47, no.7, 13-14.

Fischer, T.P. (2002) Volcanology: annual review.  Geotimes (Highlights), vol 47, no.7, 13-14.

Fischer, T.P. (2001) Volcanology: annual review.  Geotimes (Highlights), vol 46, no.7, 15-16.